Monday, September 06, 2021

The Salton Sea

 This is a photo from our trip to California in 2018.  We are parked by what is left of the Salton Sea.  In that regard I am copying a recent article that describes the mining of Lithium from the area.

Lithium  fuels hopes for revival on California’s largest lake

August 30, 2021 

Greg Shank hits golf balls onto a dried up boating dock near his home in Salton City, Calif., Wednesday, July 14, 2021. Shank used to sail a boat on the canals near his property, which have since dried up. Increasing demand for electric vehicles has shifted investments into high gear to extract lithium, critical to rechargeable batteries, from geothermal wastewater around the rapidly shrinking body of water. But decades of economic stagnation and environmental ruin have left some nearby residents indifferent or wary. 

CALIPATRIA, Calif. (AP) — Near Southern California’s dying Salton Sea, a canopy next to a geothermal power plant covers large containers of salty water left behind after super-hot liquid is drilled from deep underground to run steam turbines. The containers connect to tubes that spit out what looks like dishwater, but it’s lithium, a critical component of rechargeable batteries and the newest hope for economic revival in the depressed region.

Demand for electric vehicles has shifted investments into high gear to extract lithium from geothermal brine, salty water that has been overlooked and pumped back underground since the region’s first geothermal plant opened in 1982. The mineral-rich byproduct may now be more valuable than the steam used to generate electricity.

California’s largest but rapidly shrinking lake is at the forefront of efforts to make the U.S. a major global player in the production of lithium. Despite large deposits of the ultralight metal in the U.S., Nevada has the country’s only lithium plant, and U.S. production lags far behind Australia, Chile, Argentina and China.

Decades of environmental ruin have left some residents on the Salton Sea’s receding shores indifferent or wary. They have been disappointed before, most recently by solar plants that failed to be the economic engine many hoped.

The Salton Sea formed in 1905 after the Colorado River breached a dike and two years of flooding filled a sizzling basin, earning it the nickname “The Accidental Sea.” In the 1950s, the lake thrived as a tourist destination, drawing anglers, boaters and celebrity visitors including Frank Sinatra.

But storms in the 1970s destroyed marinas and resorts. Flooding wrecked many homes in the tiny, former resort town of Bombay Beach, and after the water dried, left an almost apocalyptic atmosphere that has recently attracted artists.

The lake level peaked in 1995 but, with little rain, has since been evaporating faster than Colorado River water seeping downhill through farms can replenish as farmers conserved more water.

Since 2003, the 324-square-mile (839-square-kilometer) lake has shrunk 40 square miles (104 square kilometers), exposing vast lakebed with microscopic wind-blown dust that contributes to poor air quality and asthma.

The sea has been a key stopover for migrating birds. But as the lake has shrunk, the fish population has declined, chasing away about 25% of the more than 400 bird species that populated it five years ago, said Frank Ruiz, Audubon California’s Salton Sea program director. Carcasses of oxygen-starved tilapia no longer blanket shores periodically with a stench that could reach Los Angeles because there are so few left.

In Salton City, a town of about 6,000, roads curve along empty lots, a legacy of its first developer who stopped construction in 1960. Street signs with idyllic names like Harbor Drive and Sea Shore Avenue mark a barren landscape of cracked pavement.

Pat Milsop, a 61-year-old retired restaurant owner, hits golf balls across a dry canal. His view is filled with dilapidated docks on bone-dry soil that harbored boats when his mother-in-law bought his house in 2004. He is skeptical that lithium will restore some of the lake’s glory.

“Are they going to do something good for the community or just buy up all the land and kick everybody out?” he asks. Nostalgic for livelier days, he plans to move to his farm near Lubbock, Texas.

The lake is at the southern tip of the San Andreas Fault, which has shifting tectonic plates that bring molten material closer to Earth’s surface. The only other part of the U.S. known to have more geothermal brine available is on the fault’s other end in Northern California.

Rod Colwell, chief executive of Controlled Thermal Resources Ltd., oversees construction of what would be the region’s first geothermal power plant in nearly a decade. General Motors Corp. said it invested in the project as it seeks to eliminate tailpipe emissions from light-duty vehicles by 2035.

The lake’s southern shores are dotted with small, volcano-like pots of bubbling mud caused by geothermal activity. In 2011, Colwell walked about a mile in the Salton Sea’s knee-deep water — all of it now evaporated, with a fine powder below a white, cracked crust.

Lakebed is considered an ideal spot for lithium. The company says it plans to drill down 8000 feet (2,438 meters) for super-hot liquid.

“There is no brine resource like this anywhere on the planet,” said Colwell, who relied on years of extensive, publicly available reports analyzing the area’s soil.

He said the $520 million plant will start producing lithium in 2024.

Owners of 11 existing geothermal plants around the lake’s southern shores are retooling for lithium and possibly other brine minerals instead of building from scratch. Warren Buffett’s Berkshire Hathaway Energy Co. has state and federal grants for lithium demonstration projects and says it could begin construction for commercial operations in 2024.

EnergySource LLC opened its geothermal plant in 2012 and its sister company, EnergySource Minerals, has extracted lithium there on a small scale since 2016, said Derek Benson, chief operating officer. It plans to start building a $500 million addition for mineral extraction by the end of March.

An easily overlooked metal structure faces the plant across a two-lane rural road. Bolted down by tons of concrete, it drills more than 4,000 feet (1,219 meters) underground for steam that allows for electricity to be generated and delivered to the Salt River Project, a utility with 2 million customers in central Arizona.

Before it’s pumped back underground, the brine is “borrowed” for a few hours to extract lithium under a nearby canopy, Benson said.

Extracting lithium from geothermal brine has never been done on a commercial scale. There are two dominant production methods: mining for rocks and using cooler brine that bakes under the sun in large ponds for about two years until the water evaporates. The Nevada plant uses evaporation ponds.

San Diego-based EnergySource operates on the former site of Simbol Materials, a heavily hyped company that used geothermal brine and flopped in 2015 after negotiations collapsed over Tesla Inc.’s $325 million offer to buy it. Business decisions caused the company’s demise, according to industry experts and executives affiliated with the latest projects. Technology has since improved, they say, and so have market conditions.

Demand for lithium has soared as more carmakers shift to electric. California has targeted 2035 to achieve zero emissions from all cars and trucks sold in the state. The Biden administration hopes to achieve carbon neutrality by 2050.

“This is the moment where a number of trends, the confluence of them, have finally come together,” Benson said.

Detailed environmental impact reviews, required by California law, have not been released. Benson says his company’s geothermal brine technology uses much less land and about one-fifth the water of evaporation ponds and emits one-seventh the carbon dioxide of rock-mining.

Unique geochemical characteristics bring risk regardless of technology, said Alexander Grant, principal at research firm Jade Cove Partners.

“It’s very easy to fall into this narrative that the technology is not proven, but that is fundamentally not the right way to look at it,” said Grant, a Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory research affiliate. “The fact is that it’s hard to build lithium projects.”

Smokestacks shooting steam at geothermal power plants are a towering presence amid flat fields of lettuce, melons and alfalfa.

Despite hugely productive land that stocks U.S. supermarkets with winter vegetables, Imperial County has a poverty rate of 22%, among California’s highest. El Centro, the county seat, perennially has one of the highest unemployment rates among 389 U.S. metropolitan areas.

Many farmworkers commute daily from Mexicali, Mexico, to pick vegetables in winter and melons in spring. In the summer, snowbirds flee stifling heat and people stay inside, making towns and fields look deserted.

Lithium has generated cautious optimism. EnergySource expects to contribute $80 million to $90 million annually to the economy, largely through payroll, taxes and royalties. Controlled Thermal Resources is expected to create 1,400 jobs, according to the Imperial Valley Economic Development Corp.

“How do we end up with this great opportunity before us but at the same time not get burned?” said Luis Olmedo, executive director of Comite Civico del Valle, which advocates for low-income and underserved residents, and a member of the Lithium Valley Commission, a state panel to promote the lake’s lithium resources.

The lake depends entirely on Colorado River water gravitating through canals across hundreds of thousands of acres of chemical-laden farms. Amid growth, Arizona demanded its full entitlement of river water, forcing California to end its overuse. In 2003, squabbling California agencies settled on shifting large amounts of the state’s share to San Diego, meaning less water for Imperial County farms and, by extension, the Salton Sea.

Persistent drought tied to climate change raises the prospect of even less Colorado River water seeping downhill into the lake.

Longtime residents miss when eared grebes, cormorants and white and brown pelicans were more abundant.

“The noise was awesome,” said Carlene Ness, 74, who bought a western shore house with her late husband in 1999. “That’s what everybody bought for, and we have to fight for it.”

In Calipatria, a city of 8,000 closest to the geothermal investments, lithium may be the biggest boon since two state prisons opened in the early 1990s. On a stifling July day, a gas station on the main street was the only establishment with activity.

Ruben Hernandez, 54, has worked for an Imperial Valley landowner since he was 8. He and his wife own a Mexican restaurant in the largely deserted town of Niland. His wife wants to stay, but “there’s nothing here, no town,” he said.

Lithium project backers who come for breakfast tell him he could eventually be feeding 20 to 30 people and delivering lunches to their plant.

“If they are going to lift this town up, it would be great,” Hernandez said.

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Saturday, June 12, 2021

April in the Garden in 2021


This is the new spillway added to the waterfall in April of 2021.  It is level and the water fall looks ok.  The surrounding area, that is:  the mountain for the waterfall still needs a lot of work to make it look more natural.  I hope to be adding rock plants to the sides, and make this side a more gradual slope.  The birds use the spill rock  as a drinking place and a bird bath.  All this bird attention seems to have added more nitrogen or whatever to cause a green algae to form.  I have just started putting D-Solv into the pond and does seem to be working to get rid of the algae.  We have also had some very windy days that add more debris to the pond.  
As well as the spillway I have renovated all the edges and the stepping stones.  The edging plants are coming along nicely to fill in.  I have moved the lantern several times, and it now sits at the end of the dry stream, which now ends at the curve in the stream that goes along the deck edge.  This part of the old dry stream has some of my best moss.  It grows over the wood pieces that line this part of the old dry stream.  The little fountain adds more aeration to the water and looks good.
I have been doing a lot of path renovations this Spring.  This is the much improved path that runs from the entry by the little rockery,  along the cedar hedge to the other side of the cut garden where it meets the path that goes between the cut garden and the 5 feet of that side of this area that has Irises, herbs, oak tree, lilac.; and goes into the entry to the pond  by the mermaid side of the waterfall.
This black squirrel, I think is the culpert that has been digging in the garden.  Its a mutation and is bigger that the other squirrels.  I haven't seen it lately, thank heavens.  I haven't seen the nice, smaller red one with the fine big bushy tail, either.
This great big beautiful great blue heron, ate all of the lovely goldfish I had in the pond! So, I have put tomato cages into the pots at the shallow sides of the pond with bamboo stakes through them to act as a fence to keep the heron out, hopefully.  The heron was even standing on the edge of the tub garden on the deck and ate both of the goldfish in there too.  The tub in the woodland had yellow flag water iris, that are invasive.  While emptying the tub I found a little comet gold fish, which got put into the pond, of course.  I have since added 2 white comets and 2 gold comets to the supply of fish.  One gold one in the deck tub.  That happened a couple of weeks ago.  I hope to resupply the sarrosas and the shubunkins. 

I have been renovating the little rockery at the front to add the saxifrages and the 2 small tufa rocks into the little gold wall rockery.  It now looks rather like a trough with 3 sections, (soon to be 4).  It has 3 levels.  The lowest level wraps around the middle levels to the back of the fourth level, and will eventually hold some taller plants.  I have the thyme circle cleaned up and some top dressing added.  It is looking quite good now. It could use 3 or 4 more new thyme plants.    I have to keep all these new renovations watered.  And we are in a drought!  The cutting garden is doing very well with the watering.  I have a very nice lupine showing a bloom now.  And the strawberries produced 2 berries.  We need some hotter weather for them to bloom, I think.   The trilliums all survived.  They are quite messy right now and that magnolia tree bed needs to be cleaned up; as well as all of the boulevard garden.  The woodland, too needs some more work.

Because of  all these renovations I have not taken the time to take any pictures.  The rhodendrons were spectacular.  They are just finishing up now.  The roses are full of blossoms and fragrance now.  The lilac was full of blooms and fragrance earlier, and its blooms have gone brown.  Its time for its dead heading.  The oriental poppies are finished blooming and will need dead heading too.   We have had some cooler weather this week and I got quite a bit of the front garden weeded.  It is looking pretty good too.  The campanula in the little rockery at the back is in bloom!  I must get picture of that one, at least.   We are suppose to have rain tomorrow ... here's hopin'!

Tuesday, October 06, 2020

September in the garden


Pat found he could get a table that moved out of the path to the back from the front seats of the LTV motor home.  He contacted the factory and they sent him the mostly assembled table.  He installed it and it works very well.  We tried it out recently.  We should not have to pack it away under the bed, any more.  It can stay where it is and move around easily for when we are travelling and when we are eating.
I was able to get photos of the fish.  The is a sarasa and the only big shubunkin that I seem to have now.
This is a very unusual tiny fish.  It is older than 2 years as it has gone  to its gold colors.  It seems to be a miniature.  Especially when you see it next to the bigger gold fish..
Here are a number of the ones that are still black with the little shubunkin that has already changed colors.
Here is the bigger shubunkin with the smaller one and some of the smaller black ones.  
The bigger sarasa with the small shubunkin and the small black one.
Now this is another unusual size of a fish.  The big black one is bigger than the older light gold fish.  The black one is not yet 2 years old and I bought the light gold one a couple of years ago,  The big black is beginning to turn gold.  

 The big black one compared to the size of the smaller black ones.  Apparently the fish do not turn colors until they are at least 2 years old.

The two sarasas that I have left from the original purchase of two or three years ago.
This is a Kaffir lily or Schizostylis.  It is a good plant for some color in Autumn.  I am going to try to spread it around the garden a bit more.  It is in the iris family of plants and grows from rhizomes.
The Autumn crocuses are another good plant for Autumn color.  I am slowly getting quite a number of them around the garden.  The leaves show up in Spring and die down, and then the flowers come up and open.

Verbena bonariensis is a tall and slender-stemmed perennial. It can grow to 6 ft (180 cm) tall and can spread to 3 ft (90 cm) wide. At maturity, it will develop a woody base. Fragrant lavender to rose-purple flowers are in tight clusters located on terminal and axillary stems, blooming from mid-summer until fall frost.   It is self seeding around my garden.  The bees and butterflies love it.  This one arrived in one of the pots on the deck.  
July was very dry and I was watering quite a lot.  We were away for about 3 weeks in August and the garden did not get any rain.  It was very dry and most of the plants dried up.  We had some rain a couple of weeks ago and I did manage to get some time to water a bit.  I see that one of the gentians I thought was dead seems to be getting new little leaves.  It was a transplant from the back little rockery to the little rockery at the front.  The established rock/alpine garden plants all seem to be doing ok.  I won't be doing any more transplants to the little rockery at the front until after the leaves fall.  And then they can have the winter to put down some roots, and not be raked up when I collect the leaves.  The trees are just now starting to turn colors.    The garden needs weeding, as it got away on me in August and has not had any attention since then.  The apples are not quite ready, yet.  We did get a few grapes earlier.  There were only a couple of plums and no figs.  Hopefully, next year will be a better year.